# Energy losses in pipes lab report pdf

**energy losses in pipes lab report pdf Materials: A = pipe average inside diameter, in D O = pipe outside diameter, in DR = dimension ratio DR t DO Eq. Most of the kinetic energy of the electrons striking the target is converted into heat, less than 1% being transformed into x-rays. Bend in pipe d. Figure 1: Crump weir during modular flow condition The flow rate under a sluice gate can be calculated by using the Equation 1, in which energy losses and the velocity head are neglected: Q = Cd ⋅b⋅ yg 2g ⋅ yo (1) where, Q = Flow rate (m 3/s) Cd = Discharge coefficient g = Gravity (m/s 2) b = Breadth of weir (m). Lab Report Structure: I. 625 inches) and a larger pipe (1. From your results, compute the fractional loss of kinetic energy of translation during impact. Prepared under Task No. cranepumps. Using the change in internal energy, the heat of combustion of sucrose DcH = -4599 257. 0. 280) » p γ + V 2 2g + z – out = » p γ + V 2 2g + z – in + h s − h L NOTE: All “h” terms on right hand side are positive. Ave. The traditional energy pile (solid energy pile) has been implemented for decades. In other words, the radius R of the jet is proportional to the distance x downstream from the discharge location. ξ = minor loss coefficient. In this study, a series of model tests were performed on an aluminum pipe energy pile (PEP) in dry sandy soil to investigate the thermal effects on the mechanical behaviors of pipe energy pile. 567 is 48. 10 Jul 2019 Increments of 5 to 32% have been reported in the total energy loss caused by the protrusion of online emitters in 13- and 25-mm-diameter polyethylene pipes (). heat loss of nut Theo. Hardy Cross Method (Cross, 1936; Viessman and Hammer, 1993) The Hardy Cross method is also known as the single path adjustment method and is a relaxation method used for solving pipe networks. The basic They may be used when manual control is. 0% for CdTe solar cells. 357) than a sharp miter bend (1. However, they all usually follow a similar basic structure. For the all the pipe flow equations are satisfied, and the problem is solved. Compact, bench top apparatus compares pressure losses and k value of popular Report Findings for Practical Teaching in Engineering Education: Executive Summary Pressure losses were determined for nine 4-inch steel, 90° pipe bends of radii from. used to calibrate the model and obtain more comprehensive results. The thermal responses of the PEP Energy Experiments: Getting Started The first series of experiments will deal with energy. To stay informed and take advantage of all of the unique resources RFID Journal offers radius/pipe radius ratio and the angle of the bend. Heat loss from steam pipe lines in power plants and heat gain in refrigerant pipe lines in air conditioning applications. Product / Material of test Test Type Specific Test Performed Date of Issue Date of Expiry Cubes Compressive strength Water Proofing compound As per IS :2645 Ultrasonic pulse velocity, core cutting Rebound hammer test Precast Concrete Pipes IS‐458‐ BALL LAB EXPERIMENT Kathleen Tait Describe when E is and is not conserved. How could you make it so that more of the heat from the burning nut goes into the water 2. In cases of steady flow through the pipe, a constant pressure gradient is to be maintained to overcome the frictional losses due to the boundary shear. This conversion and loss of energy is known as head loss. The minor losses are any head loss present in addition to the head loss for the same length of straight pipe. Thus, the amount of vapor diminishes in the upward part of the column, where the flow of liquid is also less than at the bottom. Example pump performance and efficiency curves. The energy simply moves from the cars to the surrounding environment. p. Energy of the activation is 5889. The calorimeter is insulated to reduce the loss or gain of energy to or from the surroundings. Energy is conserved when gravity is involved. One of the most common is the Darcy-Weisbach formula, LV2 in which Hf is the head loss (loss of energy in ft-lbs per lb),/ is a re The minor losses were found by calculated the pressure drops across various pipe fittings on the Edibon Energy Losses in Bends Module. Mechanical advantage is a measure of the force amplification achieved by using a tool, mechanical device or machine system. While it is traveling the potential energy is being transformed into kinetic energy, which demonstrates a conservation of energy. DE-AC36-08-GO28308. Fig. To present in a clear manner the data that was accumulated, and the conclusions that were drawn from it. However, for pipes, they are related to factors such as the pipe diameter and roughness and the fluid velocity and properties (density, viscosity). 4% for CIGS and 21. doc / . 1 Sep 2020 the roughness and head loss coefficients in a non-straight pipeline. Company USA: (937) 778-8947 • Canada: (905) 457-6223 • International: (937) 615-3598 11 90 Table 3 - Friction Losses Through Pipe Fittings in Terms of Equivalent Lengths of Standard Pipe 8-inch diameter pipe will serve this city’s demand. A. 5) Bernoulli's principle can also be derived directly from Isaac Newton's Second Law of Motion. This can fit to the Losses in Piping Systems apparatus or be used by itself (fitted to a wall and connected to a hydraulic bench). From the equation. It is proven that the higher velocity along the smooth bore pipe, the higher is the head loss of water. Only if an open- Using the theoretical relation of a differential fluid element flowing through a long circular pipe during laminar, fully developed flow, the kinematic viscosity can be determined in the Ubbelohde viscometer. A minor loss, also the result of energy dissipation due to friction, occurs when fluid flows through or encounters a fitting in the pipeline (e. Experiment lab manuals, educational videos, and an interactive lab report preparation workbooks for ten fluid. M. !!These Head at inlet to test section of the pipe. Equipment The equipment used for this lab was a Technovate fluid circuit system for the major loss portion and an Edibon Energy Losses in Bends Module FME05, pictured below, for the minor loss portion. For example the group at lab table #5 working on the Ideal Gas Law experiment would rename their template file as "5 Gas Law. required. In many cases this is true. The Reynolds' number, Re, can be found using the following equation: NEB National Energy Board (Canada) NETL National Energy Technology Laboratory NGA Northeast Gas Association O&M Operations and Maintenance OPS (U. traceability (see Chapter 18) is defined in terms of uncertainty. EVALUATION OF ENERGY VALUES OF FOOD USING BOMB CALORIMETRY 1. MIT Laboratory for Energy and the Environment, Cambridge, Massachusetts. In order to ascertain whether a patient has inadequate energy intake, questions in the history regarding dietary intake are either directed to the patient or the caregiver in cases in which the Lab 1 – Electrostatics: Charging Objects by Friction Name _____ Date _____ University*of*Virginia*Physics*Department* 4* Fig. 51 4 A ¥ B E 0. It may be a very simple gadget, such as an electric toy automobile (which converts electricity into mechanical energy), or a very complex machine, such as an automobile engine (which converts the chemical energy of gasoline into mechanical energy). 31=48942. Name of the Laboratory Contact Details Certificate No. The Mississippi State Chemical Lab report for feed analysis includes the values of net energy for maintenance (NEm), net energy for gain (NEg), and net energy for lactation (NEl) as well as TDN values. pipe. Bends, elbows, tees, and other ﬁttings 4. Manual de hidráulica. edu Office Hour: Mondays, 5:30PM-6:30PM @ Pupin 1216 The energy loses due to the bends and fittings of a particular pipe network are called minor losses, together they determine the head loss of the system Potter, et al (2012). 5, which shows a graph of typical loss coefficients. You will then determine the density of a metal block by applying Archimedes' principle. The flow of fluids through an orific a. 4. I have the lab instructions written in a file and I attached some pictures for the data and what we did in this experiment. Bernoulli equation. The viscous friction effect associated with fluid flow. d = diameter of the pipe f = friction factor h f = loss of head due Jun 29, 2020 · The total energy loss in a pipe system is the sum of the major and minor losses. Back to HOME . This loss becomes the gain in the paddle's mechanical energy, ΔEm. ; Fernández y Fernández, M. 3%) and three metal alloys (α-brass [64. National Renewable Energy Laboratory. PART I: HOOKE’S LAW AND CONSERVATION OF MECHANICAL ENERGY A. BACKGROUND A heat exchanger is a heat transfer device whose purpose is the transfer of energy from one moving fluid stream to another moving fluid stream. Kinetic energy. This article contains ﬁve sections. The measured heat loss was compared to the predicted heat loss from empirical correlations and found to be within 9% for the gold plated copper sphere and within 8% for the black painted copper sphere on average, over the entire time history. They can also be measured experimentally. Cooling of reactor cores in nuclear power plants, though often the coolant is driven by pumps, resulting in more efficient heat transfer by forced convection. You will have to MANUALLY calculate the AREA, as graphical analysis cannot perform this function. Expression for loss of head: 1 2 p 1 A p 2 A Consider a horizontal pipe, having steady flow as shown above. Minor energy losses a. , Figure 9. Friction Loss Along Pipe 2625 Words | 11 Pages. PRINCIPLE Classification of Energy Systems The energy value of a food can be expressed in a variety of ways, ranging from the most easily determined measure, gross energy, to the net energy value. where P is the rate at which energy is radiated from the entire surface (the power), A is the surface area of the filament and s and T are defined as before. The ball has the force of gravity, which is conserved while traveling down towards the ground. flow meters, speedometers). [Note: Assume that stilbene is the limiting reagent. For the major losses, the pressure drop due to the pipe and the orifice. Create a computational model to calculate the change in the energy of one component in a system when the change in energy of the other component(s) and energy flows in and out of the system are known. pressbooks. These losses represent additional energy dissipation in the flow, usually caused by secondary flows induced by curvature or recirculation. So if the head loss between section 1 and 2 is h L Bernoulli’s theorem is modified to g P V Z g P V Z 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 1 1 1 J J h L Procedure 1. Pump Performance Measurements The Armfield Multi-Pump Test Rig has been designed to demonstrate the principal operating characteristics (head –flow curves and efficiency) of a series of different types of pumps. Denver, Colorado. View Lab Report - Lab 5 from CE 336 at California State University, Long Beach. 0. pdf - Free download as PDF File (. 4 A /2300, the pressure loss in the capillary section of the viscometer is ∆ L 2 5 F 2 6 L 7 6 Å Ï Ì á Ò ½ . Students use the associated activity to learn about the relationships between the components of the Bernoulli equation through real-life engineering examples and practice problems. Report Questions 3. Flows in pipes and through many process devices involve frictional losses. The report (PDF) must be named in the following manner: The performance of a centrifugal pump may be analyzed on the basis of the steady flow energy. The highest lab efficiency in thin film technology is 23. Your lab report should include: 1) Data used in the calculations of friction work and ∆H 2) Calculations of friction work and ∆H 3) Calculations of the uncertainties in friction work and ∆H 4) Discussion of whether energy is conserved, based on the results of the experiment. Δp minor_loss = ξ ρ f v 2 / 2 (1) where . In fact, because the flow loop in the Pump Cart has minimal height and kinetic energy changes, nearly all of the pressure energy provided by the pump is going toward overcoming friction. If the fluid is flowing out of a reservoir, the sum of all forms of energy is the same on all streamlines because in a reservoir the energy per unit volume (the sum of pressure and gravitational potential ρ g h) is the same everywhere. By changing the flow rates in all the pipes in a loop by the same amount, we assure that the increase or decrease in the flow National Renewable Energy Laboratory 1617 Cole Boulevard, Golden, Colorado 80401-3393 303-275-3000 • www. EXPERIMENT 107 ENERGY LOSSES IN PIPES REFERENCES Munson, Funtals of Fluid Mechan- mounted vertically on the rig and is instrumeated us- constant head tank and the inlet to the tank is con- nected to the bench supply. The minor loss coefficient was 0. parameters of the pipe and the velocity of the fluid flow, but it is known to high accuracy fitting) will cause a loss of energy due to the disturbance in the flow. mental Laboratory Accreditation Conference (NELAC) has also published a standard on labora-tory quality systems, which requires a radiochemical testing laboratory to report with each result its associated measurement uncertainty (NELAC, 2002, ch. 0 m/s Discharge line 1. In this case, 50 parallel 4-inch diameter pipes, nine parallel 8-inch diameter pipes, three parallel 12-inch diameter pipes, or a single 18-inch diameter pipe would be required. 1617 Cole Boulevard, Golden, Colorado 80401-3393 303-275-3000 • www. Discuss the results; does K follow the trends you expect? 5 . It is the most This "do-it-yourself" home energy audit will not be as thorough as a professional home energy assessment, but it can help you pinpoint some of the easier areas to address. A calorimeter is a well-insulated container that can measure energy changes. Department of Energy under Contract DE-AC05-76RL01830 In fluid dynamics, pipe network analysis is the analysis of the fluid flow through a hydraulics network, containing several or many interconnected branches. The hot and cold water that we use in our homes is pumped through pipes. Questions 1. When a change of section was made the length of 6-in. To measure specific heat in the laboratory, a calorimeter of some kind must be used. 7% for mono-crystalline and 22. Newton's laws are used for the solution of many standard problems, but often there are methods using energy which are more straightforward. This inexpensive flowmeter is ideal for teaching the use of the Bernoulli Balance to model fluid systems. 5% Cu, 35% Zn, 1% Pb], aluminum 6061, and steel 1045) were subjected to uniaxial tension using the Instron Model 4505. 2 In this experiment, pipes made of different materials (PVC, copper and Compare the experimental data with theoretical results, see Discussion 2. In addition, the points assigned to each part are also shown in the right these equations is beyond the scope of this lab report. The friction factor, f, must be found empirically (i. this is my data and plots i just ads Lab Report 5-Gc X nlovajuo4thMsleUUNUuMTotnl9FTqc/editts-Sdcao0c0 w Pipe flow : a practical and comprehensive guide / Donald C Rennels, Hobart M Hudson. Ideally, the device preserves the input power and simply trades off forces against movement to obtain a desired amplification in the output force. 42542537-Energy-Loss-in-Pipes-1. 2 2 1 E K eV mv e–electron charge (1. Two types of fluid flows were observed: laminar and turbulent. pipe, which in turndischarged into another 10ft. y the hot plate depends on its energy rating. There are various forms of potential energy, but only gravitational potential energy will be considered in this course. However, the design of different kinds of energy piles is still not well understood. ABSTRACT--This report summarizes the results of a research program that assessed the technology of light-duty vehicles and fuels that could be developed and commercialized during the next 25 years. About Argonne National Laboratory Argonne is a U. 00 1. circuit, the total head loss may differ from that estimated from the losses due to the individual components considered in isolation. Lab 7 Pressure and buoyancy. PIPEWORK ENERGY LOSSES. Liquid moving through pipes carries momentum and energy due to the forces acting upon it such as pressure and gravity. The path of any particle of liquid as it moves through the pipe is. In other cases the minor losses are greater than the major losses. Sudden expansion b. (due to friction). If a spring has spring constant k, then the potential energy stored in the spring is equal to U elastic = 1/2 k x 2, where x is the distance by which the spring is stretched from its relaxed (neutral) length. measure major losses and an Edibon Energy Losses in Bends Modules FME05 was used to measure minor losses. 5-3. straight2-in. In this practical you will investigate the impact of major and minor losses on water flow in pipes. Introduction. The head loss due to friction in a pipe is given by: Where L is the length of the pipe between tappings, d is the internal diameter of the pipe, u is the mean velocity of water through the pipe in m/s, g is the acceleration due to gravity in m/s2 and is pipe friction coefficient. 1). When in the pipe, fluid flows, some of potential energy is lost to overcome hydraulic resistance which is classified as:- 1. NREL/TP-550-45633 Jun 03, 2014 · PNNL-23977 2015 IECC: Energy Savings Analysis VV Mendon ZT Taylor SU Rao YL Xie May 2015 Prepared for the U. 0 and Graph 2. Answer to fluids lab : energy losses in pipes . Oil and natural gas are transported hundreds of miles by large pipelines. 3 Performing the Experiment . The experimental unit can be used to assess how different pipe geometries affect the flow. doc". The minor loss of energy includes the following cases (a) Sudden expansion of pipe: The head loss due to sudden expansion equation is he = (V 1-V 2) 2 /2g. Fluid Mechanics · Pipe Friction And Energy Loss; PIPEWORK ENERGY LOSSES. Department of Energy Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Operated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC Contract No. Sudden enlargement in the diameter of pipe results in the formation of eddies in the flow at the corners of the enlarged pipe (Fig. doc. T. 3 ing two manometers. Continuity: Q 1 = Q 2 = constant, Energy equation: 2 L 2 2 2 1 2 = head loss due to friction . 18 Nov 2014 In this experiment, major and minor losses of a pipe were found. uncertainties, the results will deviate from the theoretical ones. For laminar flow, i. maharashtra. 3620 . Description of the Apparatus:-The apparatus is shown diagrammatically in fig. also!block!heat!being!transferred!in!boilers,!this!leads!to!the!loss!of!money!because!more! workthenhas!to!be!done!in!order!to!get!the!same!energy!quantity. Construct columns for K 1i, K 2i, K 1f, K 2f and then construct the following columns: *total initial kinetic energy before the collision *total final kinetic energy after the collision *the total change in kinetic energy (ΔK = K f – K i) Student teams design and build solar water heating devices that mimic those used in residences to capture energy in the form of solar radiation and convert it to thermal energy. Instead, its momentum is used to excite normal modes of the lattice, called phonons. Let L = length of the pipe between sections 1 and 2. 2 show friction loss data calculated by the Hazen Williams formula for the most commonly used steel and PVC pipe diameters, based on C values of 140 and 150, respectively. Water in a city is distributed by extensive piping net-works. ,1. The head loss in a The Crane TP-410 manual provides the tables and formulas . expose you to more material on flow energy, because it turns out that this is the key to the problems posed above. Doubling the diameter of a pipe results in the head loss decreasing by a factor of 32 (≈ 97% reduction), while the amount of material required per unit length of the Two types of energy loss predominate in fluid flow through a pipe network; The following equipment is required to perform the energy loss in pipe fittings experiment: Use the template provided to prepare your lab report for this experiment. Note that the concept of . Technical Report . / 2g) Taking the water level in the tank C as a datum, the results are: HJ = 18 m T. Before doing a complete energy balance a few assumptions can be made. In both open and pipe flow the fall of the energy gradient for a given length of channel or pipe represents the loss of energy by friction. Feb 11, 2010 · Bernoulli's principle relates the pressure of a fluid to its elevation and its speed. Project description I have a lab report that I need to submit in 4 days and I need your help. See Figure 4. Sample results are also available on the DEP's website through the Drinking Water Reporting System . Like pipe friction, these losses are roughly proportional to the square of the flow rate. The laboratory classroom is located in the west wing of Benton Hall, Room 331. 2 /h. txt) or read online for free. Velocity distributions for fully developed pipe flow: a) laminar flow; b) turbulent flow g V D L hf f 2 2 = (2) where, f is the (Darcy) friction factor, L is the length of the pipe over which the loss occurs, hf is the head loss due to E1 = upstream energy, (m) E 2= downstream energy, (m) ∆E = energy loss, (m) According to the U. docx) or The aims of this experiment were to: To study how the pressure drop in a pipe varies rate Q, using the results for both high flow and low flow was plotted: Class12: Energy losses in pipe flow. Introduction (15 points): The introduction should include a general overview of the ex- 5. energy is a function of the temperature only; here v For the case of, nonuniform roughness the following formula will give results which. These pressure losses are a function of various geometric and flow parameters including pipe diameter, length, internal surface roughness and type of fitting. 1. 3 Kinetic Energy mulas for loss coefficients have provided results that concepts using loss coefficients realized by experiment. 5-1. total heat loss through natural convection and radiation exchange with the surroundings. The aim is to determine the flow rates and pressure drops in the individual sections of the network. The results are discussed in relation to those found by previous investigators opposite has been the case, the desire being to experiment on pipe lines similar to Since the energy loss in the bend must be greater than. first progress report on methods used and results obtained in determining energy losses and flow characteristics of transitions for moderate and small size canals. 7-2 Secondary Losses of Head in Pipes: Any change in a pipe (in direction, in diameter, having a valve or other fitting) will cause a loss of energy due to the disturbance in the flow. head in the venturi throat. Friction loss is the loss of energy or “head” that occurs in pipe flow due to viscous effects generated by the surface of the pipe. This laboratory exercise explores applications of the work-energy theorem using simulations. It works on the basic principle of Bernoulli's Equation. in-2020-11-14-08-51-34 Subject: Charpy Impact Test Lab Report Keywords: charpy,impact,test,lab,report Created Date: 11/14/2020 8:51:34 AM The Set-up consists of 2 pipes of different diameters, which are connected in parallel. This mechanical energy is delivered to the liquid by the fins of the Xcel Energy . al heat loss of nut in Cal. It is invented by an American Engineer Clemans Herchel and named by the Italian physicist Giovanni Venturi. To interpret the results and discuss them in the light of the underlying theory. Head loss in straight pipes The head loss along a length L of straight pipe of constant diameter d is given by the expression: h f LV gd f hgd L LV 2 L 2 2 / 2 (3) Minor losses in pipe flow are a major part in calculating the flow, pressure, or energy reduction in piping systems. Report: In preparing your Final Report, you should consider/complete/discuss the following (not necessarily in this order) in addition to the issues you discussed in connection with the first part of the experiment in the Partial Report: (1) Tabulate and plot the absorbance vs. The properties of the Measuring Steam Energy Velocity (ft/s) Volumetric Flow Rate (ft 3 /m) Internal area (ft 2) Density (lb/ft 3) Mass Flow Rate (lb/hr) Energy Rate (Btu/hr) Enthalpy (Btu/lb) Basic steps for the steam energy calculation energy losses are present. www. Laboratory investigations of jets penetrating into a quiescent ﬂuid of the same density (e. NREL/TP-581-40605 . HY61. Consider fully developed flow through a constant-area pipe between section 1 and 2 in Figure 3. In this course, we will not explore the details of how to compute these losses. lab_6. 5 m/s Head loss in a pipe The equation for the head loss of a flow in a 3. In doing this, students gain a better understanding of the three different types of heat transfer, each of which flow-measuring devices commonly used in the laboratory and in industry while performing calibration procedures. From equations (1) and (4), it might appear that Re for a non-blackbody varies simply with the Figure: Losses in pipes during flow Friction factor in pipes or Major losses:- A pipe is a closed conduit through which fluid flows under the pressure. In the lab, label sufficient covered containers to accommodate 3-cm segments of the profile (0-3 cm, 3-6 cm, 6-9 cm, etc. This log will form the basis of your lab report. The pressure drop from the pipe was measured from a smaller pipe (0. 6. htm Lecture By: Er. 10. Tap to unmute. The main focus of this experiment is to study the head losses that are experienced through common fittings and valves which are commonly found in piping systems… Shear-Stress Distribution Across a Pipe Section . In these labs, you will investigate more closely the behavior of a system’s internal energy. Lab I - 1 LABORATORY I: CONSERVATION OF ENERGY AND HEAT In 1101 labs, you used conservation of energy to determine whether or not the internal energy of a system changed during an interaction. Each of these flows behave in different manners in terms of their frictional energy loss while flowing and have different equations that predict their behavior. 6x8. Change the flow in each pipe in a given loop by ∆Q. This results in, for the pressure of the air cushion. 84), p. com Experiment #3: Energy Loss in Pipe Fittings 23 Experiment #4: Energy Loss in Pipes 32 Experiment #5: Impact of a Jet 42 Experiment #6: Orifice and Free Jet Flow 49 Experiment #7: Osborne Reynolds' Demonstration 58 Experiment #8: Free and Forced Vortices 65 Experiment #9: Flow Over Weirs 75 Experiment #10: Pumps 83 References 101 The goal of this laboratory is to study pressure losses due to viscous (frictional) effects in fluid flows through pipes. HM 150. As shown in Figure 3-3 The loss of energy of the electrons due to impact is manifested as x-rays. 29 unit can be used to investigate and visualise the pressure losses in pipe elements. Where heat loss occurs, more vapor has to be produced in the reboiler or steam generator, resulting in a loss in energy efficiency. In Ball Drop, we see energy being transformed, although the total amount of energy re-mains the same. g. Frictional dissipation plays a prominent role in this lab, as it does with real roller coasters. It was concluded that the longer and more gradual turn in an elbow caused a lower minor loss coefficient (K=0. 11). Derive an expression for the fractional loss of kinetic energy of translation in terms only of and , and compare with The pipe is horizontal, so both points are at the same height. The mass of the nut went down and the temperature of the water went up. (7), using Eqs. ) are essentially due to friction, as well as to the diverse singularities encountered. Laboratory attendance is mandatory and roll will be taken. 027. July 2008 . Loss of electrons is an oxidation reaction. pipe. Major Loss Two five Friction Losses in Pipes Live Experiment 2015. The energy losses due to pressure changes can be seen in every part of a hydraulic system due to the expansions, contractions, bends in pipes, pipe fittings, and obstructions in the pipes. PDF datasheet. How are the energy diagrams different energy of sucrose was determined to be -6. Procedure. expansions, contractions, bends, or valves). a pipe results in a continuous loss of energy or total head of the fluid. These range from a form to fill in and submit before leaving the lab, to a formal written report. This is the form of the Stefan-Boltzmann law we will be using in this lab. 0-2. The shear stress of a flow is also dependent on whether the flow is turbulent or laminar. Experiment #3: Energy Loss in Pipe Fittings. heat loss of nut % Eff. lengthof0-in. 8 MB: GR-84-16: 1984: Hydraulic Flume Laboratory Erosion-Test Equipment: 3. This thermal energy is next transferred to water (to be used as domestic hot water) in the form of heat. 17. The HM 150. 2) Minor energy losses: The loss of energy due to change of velocity of the flowing fluid in magnitude or direction is called minor loss of energy. %1. Another example is elastic potential energy, the potential energy stored in a spring or other elastic material. These losses are usually converted into head reductions in the direction of the flow. The experiment is designed to study uniform water flow over a range of flow rates. 1. Report/Plan due 22 Mar 99 pipe flow it connects the elevations to which the water would rise in gi- ezometer tubes along the pipe. By making this measurement at several di erent temperatures, we will be able to use a Maxwell relation to determine the change in internal energy Uand entropy Sfor a rubber band that is stretched at xed temperature. Himanshu Energy losses in pipes used for the transportation of fluids (water, petroleum, gas, The results in a PSI drop (pressure loss) at the other end of the the loss-of This page provides a quick review of piping losses, starting with Bernoulli's Equation Friction losses are a complex function of the system geometry, the fluid These losses represent additional energy dissipation in the flow, usually caused The following typical pipe fittings are incorporated for study: mitre bend, 90° elbow, swept bends (large and small radius), sudden contraction and sudden. Loss of 600 psig steam caused the FCCU to trip offline and a rise in pressure in the flare knock out pot caused the flare gas recovery compressors to trip offline. Extract a core sample from a soil using a hand- or power-operated sampling tube. 94 KJ/mol. Hooke The report contains test results for samples collected during the year. No. The thing you should keep in mind is The pipe-head loss due to friction is obtained from the Darcy-Weisbach equation: Figure 5. Net energy for maintenance is the energy needed for maintenance functions such as maintaining body tem - Fluid Mechanics Laboratory Address: 3rd floor NL-1 Overview: This lab is run in conjunction with the theory course ME 231 (Fluid Mechanics). Lab #5 Energy Losses in Pipes CE 336 Lab Department of CECEM Group Members Major Anthony Parada ME Brandon Reed ME Josh D = Diameter of pipe. Report highlights. Energy plays the central role in the workings of our environment and it is the source of many of our environmental problems. Even though this process represents a loss of energy possessed by the cars, it is not a violation of the principle of conservation of energy. 1 FLOW OF WATER IN A PIPE The flow of water through a rough open pipe may be expressed by means of the Darcy-Weisbach resistance equation ∆h = f L D v2 2g (5. We already know that Another typical means of heating in the laboratory is to use an electric hot plate. Experiment al heat loss per gram of nut in Cal. Because of the complexity of flow in many fittings, K is usually determined by experiment. Entering the Reynolds number and roughness from above results in a friction factor f=0. in the straight portions of the pipes, the major losses or local losses. I. 1) in which _h is the head loss over a length L of pipe of diameter D. 4% A neutral object can, however, produce some of the same phenomena as a charged object as a result of a process known as polarization. length of2-in. Friction Losses in Pipes Live Experiment 2015. The design objective is to increase the cooling capacity while simultaneously improving reliability of an existing data center. One of these modes is the rigid translation of the entire crystal, and in this case the energy loss The energy loss which occurs in a pipe fitting (so-called secondary loss) is commonly expressed in terms of a head loss (h, metres) in the form: ∆ℎ= 𝐾𝑣2 2𝑔 Where K = the loss coefficient and v = mean velocity of flow into the fitting. F1-18 Energy Losses in Pipes: • Vertical test pipe with pressure tappings at entry and exit • Feed either direct from hydraulics bench or from constant head tank • Water and mercury manometers supplied as standard • Quick release fitting for easy connection to hydraulics bench • Educational Software available as an option F1-19 Flow Aug 01, 2015 · Accurate prediction of losses for horizontal pipes, vertical pipes, and bends is important as these account for a large share of the total pipeline loss. the importance of friction in head losses, it could be said that the reports on possibly the energy loss at the inlet elbow is different from the energy loss at 30 Sep 2015 BAHAGIAN A LABORATORY REPORT FLUID MECHANICS experiment 1 - friction losses in pipes-report This change of energy is usually referred to as friction head loss, C)Lab Manual University Teknologi Malaysia. Head loss. Conversely, as the reactant with the low energy orbital "gains" electrons, its for comparing how different substances absorb and transfer energy. It is an introductory course where flow behaviour, fluid forces and analysis tools are introduced. Select your county and water supplier to see the most recent lead and copper test results (on the results page, contaminant 1022 is copper, 1030 is lead). Conductive heat transfer. The average velocity of flow is v. 1 Jan 2019 Allow the required quantity of Experiment#5 Objective: To determine the Experimental values for energy losses are usually report in terms of a loss Sudden Enlargement: As a fluid flow from a smaller pipe into a larger Minor losses in pipe flow are a major part in calculating the flow, pressure, or energy reduction in piping systems. Greater fluid viscosity results in greater head loss. 3% for multi-crystalline silicon wafer-based technology. Shopping. since there are losses of energy due to friction. To find the losses in energy due to friction losses in pipes and pipe fittings. Flow Rate. 80 Header from subcontractor-furnished 8 foot tubes. Jul 06, 2018 · Fluid Mechanics Lab Report CED, UET-P Muhammad Bilal Experiment # 10 To determine the relationship between head loss due to friction and velocity for flow of water through smooth bore pipe Objectives • To study and develop laminar flow • To study and develop turbulent flow • To study head losses in pipes at different velocities Theory Fig 9. At the beginning of each lab DESIGN GUIDE Residential PEX Water Supply Plumbing Systems Second Edition Prepared for Plastics Pipe Institute, Inc (PPI) 105 Decker Court Suite 825 Minor losses (due to valves, pipe bends, etc. ). Bernoulli's equation can be used to approximate these parameters in water, air or any fluid that has very low viscosity. pipewas taken The lab report "Fluid Mechanics for Engineers" involves the analysis of the energy losses in pipes. Convert to : metres for the calculation. If Oct 21, 2005 · sentence has to be in an active voice. For plunging inflow pipes, the inflow pipe energy gradeline (EGL o) is logically independent of access hole water depth and losses. There is an inlet Apr 19, 2014 · Lab 3: Thermodynamics of a rubber band In this lab, we will measure the tension of a rubber as a function of length. , includes the sum of pipe friction losses, h. Energy losses in pipes used for the transportation of fluids (water, petroleum etc. fluid circuit system for the major losses and an Edibon Energy The results receive from this equation were within 2 percent of the results from the Colebrook. JJ Sean Cruz. Weigh and record the empty weight of each container and conservation of mass, momentum, and energy equations (either approximately or numerically). The total loss can be represented by h L,total = X h L,pipe + X h L,minor (8) where h L,pipe is the viscous loss in a straight section of pipe and h L,minor is a minor Energy Losses in Bends and Fittings The ARL’s 1290E accessory permits losses in different bends, a sudden contraction, sudden enlargement and a typical control valve to be demonstrated. 29 Losses in Bends and Fittings. Streamlines of a liquid flowing III. (5) and (26), we get: () 2 DC DC DC 22 LL D L LDL 1 1/ VI V VI R I VR R == + +. 2-8. (11) We have assumed ideal switches, with no losses, that is R D = 0. For HDPE pipe, a range of C values between 150 and 160 is typical. The values of the diameter and the length of the pipes are given in the lab manual. Recall that energy is the AREA of a force vs distance graph, so think about the SHAPE of the area under the graph. 3 Minor loses can be shown in terms of the loss coefficient K and is Pressure losses occur in pipes, pipeline elements, fittings and measuring devices (e. These pressure losses must be taken into account when designing piping systems. You must do a mole/mass calculation to calculate the Nov 09, 2015 · Include a statement that the work done in this lab and submitted in this report is yours and your partners. energy loss. The minor losses may raised by 1. What you want is a report that is readable. 5. Draw and label energy diagrams for the evaporation of equal amounts (same number of moles) of water, acetone, and isopropyl alcohol. 1 The apparatus. energy storage at ANU over 40 years Invented 1971 – Peter Carden, various studies during 70’s and 80’s First solar reactor 1994 10MWe System study Dec 1997 First lab closed loop 10th April 98 First solar (1kWsol) loop 26th Sept 98 Full size (15kWsol) closed loop Dec 99 (IEAust award) 24 hr continuous operation May 2002 National Renewable Energy Laboratory. [2] This loss of energy is then transferred as heat. To provide an accurate account of the work that was performed in the laboratory. All terms in equation Loss of head due to sudden enlargement: This is the energy loss due to sudden enlargement. The energy loss in pipe flow due to friction can be expressed as a pressure drop instead of as a head loss. The major factor contributing to the energy loss in any pipe flow is through the boundary shear. 1 , consists of two separate hydraulic circuits, one painted dark blue , one painted light blue , each containing a number of pipe system components . Major losses create a pressure drop along the pipe since the pressure must work to overcome the frictional resistance. Record lab cell efficiency for Perovskite is 21. 8. Energy losses in pipes used for the transportation of fluids (water, petroleum, gas, etc. The objective is to measure the mass flow rate(m) By continuity Bernoulli’s equation may now be applied to a streamline down the centre of the pipe from a point 1 well upstream of the restriction to point 2 in the vena Venturi Meter is a device in which pressure energy is converted into kinetic energy and it is used for measuring the rate of flow of liquid through pipes. The lab report must be individual work and not copied from another student’s reports or similar to it. (10), P D represents the losses in the rectifier ( R D is the equivalent resistance of the rectifier). Publication-No. S. In this experiment, minor head losses through a pipe section that has several bends, transitions, and fittings will be measured. L. MS-PS3-1. home fires in 2012-2016 (behind fires caused by unattended equipment), accounting for 13% of home structure fires. In addition, by solving both mass and energy balances in order to describe the transient behavior of a simple batch distillation, the authors go beyond what is usually covered in CHE 306 at KFUPM or equivalent junior courses at other institutions. 29, which compares with the minor loss coefficient of a well-designed venturi meter of about 0. allowance has been made for friction losses. It is found that the Nusselt number can be expressed as: m n C L k hL Nu Re Pr where C, m, and n are constants and L is the length of the flat plate. LFEE 2008-05 RP . Determining the energy gradeline for the outlet of a pipe has already been described in Chapter 6 . pipewas taken See full list on pumpsandsystems. 017, close to the Instructions Manual. Consult any standard mechanics textbook to learn more about these equations. 03 kJ. Mistakes can compromise a sample, so take care in obtaining the sample container, collecting the sample and transporting it to the lab. Minor or dynamic pressure loss in pipe or tube system components can be expressed as. Kinetic energy is the form associated with motion, and for a single particle: 2 mv2 KE (4) Laboratory Investigations of a Slurry Pipeline for the Yuma Desalting Plant: 0. For straight-pipe losses, Barth (1958) proposed using Eq. (Example 3. 8), the heat transfer rate in at the left (at x) is Qx k A˙ dT dx x The pipe flow experiment provides an experimental backbone or learning how to apply engineering equations to real world situations where fluids flow. The head is measured in mm. Cover Sheet: This page has the course number and assigned lab section, the title of the experiment, your name, your lab partner’s names, the date that the lab was performed and your TA’s name. from experiment). The basic idea is that when a nucleus bound in a crystal lattice emits a low energy γ-ray, it is not free to recoil arbitrarily. Qt. may be needed before and after the lab time to complete the calculations. 3. 5). gov. Did you change matter into energy? Determine how much energy you store in the stretched spring when you stretch it by 1 cm, 2 cm, 3 cm, 4 cm, and 5 cm. Energy as a tool for mechanics problem solving. Head loss, h. UNIFORM FLOW 10 Uniform flow serves as a good reference case from which to think about the effect of gravity on the free surface in an open-channel flow. Argonne National Laboratory, or UChicago Argonne, LLC. For flow in a circular pipe, an expression for the head loss due to skin friction can be developed by applying the principles of conservation of energy and linear momentum [1]. 4 Resistance coefficients of special pipeline elements. < 2 N/ (6) As a part of your pre-lab homework, you should find all correlations relevant to the geometries and the flow regimes considered in this experiment. T =σ (Equation 6. f is a measure of pipe resistance. Pressure tapings are provided on each pipe to measure the pressure losses with the help of a Differential Manometer. To demonstrate the basic equations of heat exchanger operation. venturi meter, Bernoulli balances, laboratory experiments, fluid mechanics Sample Lab Report For PHYS221/222 This document is intended to provide guidance on how to write a lab report using the 100 point lab report format that is given on this website. Includes 2. h s = K (v 2 / 2g) The velocity v is the velocity at the entry to the fitting. Al-Shemmeri, "Engineering Fluid Mechanics Solution Manual ",. 6 28. We observe energy being absorbed by a liquid as it evaporates as a decrease in temperature of the liquid and in its surroundings as they transfer energy to the liquid. The record lab cell efficiency is 26. gov Operated for the U. Due to this there will be a loss of pressure in the fluid, because energy is The frictional losses are mainly caused in a straight pipe, friction loss induced in c. pL =. This experiment of the friction loss along a smooth pipe shows that there are existence of laminar and transitional flows as stated in Graph 2. (x is negative if the Lab report You must hand in a typed lab report for every lab you perform. S. pdf. 5 m/s Discharge line 1. The resistance loss is computed from one of several formulas which involve coefficients derived from laboratory studies of uniform flow. 6 10-19 C) E K–kinetic energy, V–applied voltage, INTRO TO EXPERIMENTAL PHYS-LAB 1494/2699 Experiment 2: Projectile motion and conservation of energy Nate Saffold nas2173@columbia. The apparatus should be accurately leveled by means of screws provided at the Jan 01, 2019 · Experimental values for energy losses are usually report in terms of a loss coefficient ,K, as follows: HL = Kv2/2g In which K = Loss coefficient V = Average velocity of a flow in the small pipe (m/s) g = Acceleration due to the gravity (9. The gravitational potential energy of an object of mass m at an elevation z in a gravitational field, relative to In Eq. Discussion The activation energy is the minimum amount of energy needed for colliding species to react. the pipe, and as much liquid enters one end of the pipe as leaves the other end of the pipe in the same time, then the liquid is said to flow at a steady rate. Applied Fluid Mechanics Lab Manual by Habib Ahmari and Shah Md Imran Required Format for Lab Reports . hs = K (v. Jun 03, 2014 · analysis is then modeled through building energy simulation to estimate the resulting energy impacts. 27 @ G I ? 6 (6) Special pipe components and fittings such as pipe bends or elbows, pipe branches, changes in cross-section, and valves alter flow geometry and produce additional pressure losses apart Diameter of pipe work, d= 0. ) in pipe networks can be accounted for by using the equivalent length of pipe method. For example, for a turbulent flow inside a pipe with circular cross-section of diameter D, 0 Q L0. 7 MB: GR-83-04: 1983: Laboratory Tests of a Jan 27, 2006 · Since each lab group will turn in an electronic copy of the lab report, be sure to rename the lab report template file. 2 Oct 2015 Copy link. This handbook contains data on the friction coefficients of straight pipes and and for which the internal. Double Pipe Heat Exchanger Experiment OBJECTIVE 1. Info. This results in the loss of head across the fitting. “Major” losses occur due to friction within a pipe, and “minor” losses occur at a change of section, valve, bend or other interruption. Head loss over the test section of the. (The discharge rate is so small To determine the energy losses in pipe flow. 97 0. Azevedo Netto, J. concentration for the calcium, magnesium, and iron measurements. The first assumption is that the energy lost to the surroundings from the cooling water or from the U-bends in the inner pipe to the surroundings is negligible. : 06/98 HM 150. The manometer measures the pressure drop due to the pipe. Before dropping a ball, you must lift it up from its’ resting surface. Head losses are a result of wall friction in all types of pipelines and of local resistance to flow, for example in valves and fittings (see also Pressure loss). Open Channel Assembly with Flow/current meter; Rectangular Glass Channel. When water flows through a pipe system, the flow resistances causes pressure losses to occur at pipe fittings and valves and fittings. In many fluid power applications, energy losses due to flow in valves and This results in the Darcy's equation can be used to find head losses in pipes experiencing What are the important conclusions of the Reynolds experiment? 8. Your browser does not currently recognize 22 Jan 2018 Head Loss Due to Friction in Pipe Flow Watch More Videos at: https://www. Based on the loss factors and energy use, 56 an estimate was made for the energy losses in various industrial sectors, as seen in Figure 2. Major losses are associated with frictional energy loss that is caused by the viscous effects of the fluid and roughness of the pipe wall. Finally we will look energy losses due to valves and fittings (called minor losses). Transitional flow is a mixture of laminar and turbulent flow, with turbulence in the center of the pipe, and laminar flow near the edges. The transitions are used to connect pipelines to canals and canals to pipelines. When a fluid travels in a pipe energy is dissipated by friction. The naming convention is as follows: [Table Number][Short Experiment Name]. cm. 2. pipe uses a C value of 140, but with use and corrosion a lower value is typically used. LAB 3 - Minor Losses in Pipe Flow. Energy always Nov 15, 2004 · This report analyzes the existing mechanical systems for the Data Center in Delaware. Wrap the core in plastic to prevent water loss between sampling and weighing. 5) Answers to the questions. gov NREL is a national laboratory of theU. ε = Adventures in Energy Skate Park Skateboarding has seen an immense growth in popularity over the last several years. 4 MB: GR-84-07: 1984: Hydraulic Model Studies - Ridgway Dam Outlet Works: 2. 5 Jul 2019 Friction losses occur as fluid passes through pipe fittings, bends and pressure drop Major energy losses are calculated by Darcy Weisbach formula, Organization's (CPHEEO) Manual on Water Supply and Treatment, etc. 1-2 t = pipe minimum wall thickness, in 5 Pipe Diameter for ID Controlled Pipe Standards for inside diameter controlled pipes provide average dimensions for the pipe inside diameter that are used for flow calculations. • Energy conservation (MYO, Equation (5. Report No. ME 354 - Thermofluids Laboratory Spring 1999. 0 m/sFor hot water: Suction line 0. X-ray radiation is produced in an x-ray tube. Requirements of each section are explained in detail on page 6. tutorialspoint. The application of the conservation of energy principle provides a powerful tool for problem solving. In these equations, L 0 refers to the initial length of the specimen, refers to the instantaneous length and L refers to the σ instantaneous stress. The Laboratory’s main facility is outside Chicago, at 9700 South Cass Avenue, Argonne, Illinois 60439. (5 points) 2. Derive equation (1), starting from general physics principles. At any point of the pipe, the flow of the liquid does not change with time. 6%. By developing Eq. This energy drop is dependent on the wall shear stress (τ) between the fluid and pipe surface. When you do this, you are transferring energy from your muscles to A loss of heat along the column causes increased condensation and reduced evaporation. to determine the pressure drop (Δp) for solid–gas flow. Edibon Energy Losses in Bends Module FME05. e. For example, weight loss > 2% per week is classified as acute severe malnutrition, while loss of 1–2% per week is considered to be moderate severity. It includes a pipe with a roughened internal bore, and pressure tapping points connected to a manometer. pub See full list on uta. 1 and A. To overcome the limitations of the ideal power equation for understanding the relationship between pipe roughness, friction losses, and pump operation, an analysis of the impact of pipe replacement on pumping energy was undertaken using a case study utility network model. The energy gradient is at a distance equal to the velocity head above the hydraulic gradient. Only RFID Journal provides you with the latest insights into what's happening with the technology and standards and inside the operations of leading early adopters across all industries and around the world. As the reactant with the high energy electrons "loses" its electrons, its oxidation state increases. Table 1: Characteristics of Hydraulic Jump (USBR 1955) [1] Name F 1 Energy dissipation Feb 13, 2015 · 54 The losses were based on estimated percentages of losses for the major areas of energy use. on the roughness of the wail of the pipe) Equation 3 is in accordance with The object of the present experiment is to demonstrate the change in the law of resistance and required to prevent the results from being affected by disturbances near the. Head Loss: m: h 1-h 2: Calculated: Head loss over the test section of the : pipe. The relationship between frictional head loss and frictional pressure drop is simply: (4) where: = frictional pressure as the lab manual beforeyou come to lab. To measure flow losses and pressure characteristics of different pipes and piping Assuming steady-state, incompressible, and 1D flow, the energy equation becomes: 2. The first law in control volume form (steady flow energy equation) with no shaft work and no mass flow reduces to the statement that ΣQ& for all surfaces = 0 (no heat transfer on top or bottom of figure 2. Recommended flow velocitiesFor cold water: Suction line 0. 1) consistently reveal that the envelope containing the turbu-lence caused by the jet adopts a nearly conical shape. Frictional losses in pipe flows • The viscosity causes loss of energy in flows which is known as frictional loss. Tables A. This list will help you prioritize your energy efficiency upgrades. Open a Microsoft Word document to keep a log of your experimental procedures, results and discussions. Overview of food energy flow through the body for maintenance of energy balance 1. Finally, compute the percentage of the ball’s initial kinetic energy that was lost when the ball collided with the pendulum arm. 30 Jun 2011 For advice on how to write lab reports, click on this link Calculated. of the CHE 409 laboratory. Head Loss due to Valves Energy Losses in Pipe. 2). The lab includes two parts, incorporating conservation of energy when changes in kinetic, gravitational and/or spring potential energy are accounted for without frictional losses. 11 allows to study the pressure losses in pipes, piping elements and shut-off devices. Department of Energy laboratory managed by UChicago Argonne, LLC under contract DE-AC02-06CH11357. pipework energy losses This compact bench-top apparatus uses smooth, industry standard plastic pipe, commonly used in domestic and other small-bore water systems. We would find the head losses using the above given equations. page. Percentage of KElost is 1 1 2()m b + m p v r 2 1 2 m b v 0 2 100% Report: In addition to the standard elements of a well written lab report described in the introduction to this manual, your report must include: 1. 25 Apr 2020 The energy losses in pipes and fittings experiment was conducted by Rylan For the results obtained, it is recommended that an exponential In this experiment you will investigate the frictional forces inherent in laminar and turbulent pipe rate through a pipe, an estimate of the coefficient of friction ( friction factor) friction will then be compared with established results by plotting them on flow energy equation, including friction loss, would generalise to. Use page 2 of the collision-analysis program to examine kinetic energy conservation. The knowledge of data of such transformation allows the determination of the necessary power needed for the transportation of the For rough pipes the pipe friction coefficient is read from Moody diagram or evaluated using Colebrook formula: B L H2 K C F 2. For actual condition there must be some head loss in the direction of flow. The total energy of a given system is generally the sum of several different forms of energy. 4 MB: GR-83-06: 1983: Griswold Flow Control Valve - Hydraulic Tests: 3. 2 Energy Another important quantity describing the evolution of the system is its energy. 23. Electrical failures or malfunctions were the second leading cause of U. In this lab, you will show that the total momentum of the system is always conserved when there is no net external force acting on the system, and that the total mechanical energy of the system is only conserved in certain kinds of collisions. 4. Also Available with Digital Instrumentation. LAB REPORT EXPERIMENT # 3 HEAD LOSS IN PIPES PNGE 211: AN INTRODUCTION TO FLUID MECHANICS Lab Report 2- Head Loss in Pipe & Bends. The lab report must include the following: 1. This equation is believed to have been originally proposed for the dilute The energy required to push water through a pipeline is dissipated as friction pressure loss, in m. Table 1 shows the classification. 9 Dispersible Energy 10 Diffusion 11 Liquid Crystal 12 Salt Dissolving In Water 13 The Pfeffer Tube 14 The Second Law Of Thermodynamics 15 Gibbs Free Energy 16 Gibbs Free Energy And Temperature 17 Gibbs Free Energy And Temperature 18 How Entropy Can Decrease (In A System) 19 Periodic Entropy Of The Elements Potential energy of a system is due to the position of the system in a potential field. , Chapter 8, sections 8. Experiment 100: Pipe Flow involves an experimental apparatus with: four pipes of different diameters: 1/8, 1/2, 1 and 2 inches Three water manometers Minor losses must be included in the head loss term in the energy equation. There is no such thing as a perfect lab report and there are multiple ways to present the same information. To understand the basic operation of heat exchangers. Crosscutting Concepts: Systems and System Models. Energy consumption and utility rates for the facility are outlined. [note: Students should be keeping artifacts (lab notebook, portfolio, etc. In practice, gross energy is not used in evaluating foods. 2 Pressure Energy. September 2006 . To measure the discharge of flow and velocity distribution in open channels; To obtain uniform flow condition and to find the values of Chezy's C and Manning's n & Jan 01, 2014 · Fig. L ln L. pdf), Text File (. What started as a way for surfers to kill time when the waves were not high enough for surfing has turned into an organized, competitive sport that boasts internationally known athl Charpy Impact Test Lab Report Author: accessibleplaces. For most pipe runs there will be multiple minor loss elements connected by sections of straight pipe. 81 m/s2 ) Characteristic of flow through pipe fitting and valve: Elbows: 45o elbow and 90o elbow: The Friction Loss in Valves and Fittings. The calculated heat of combustion was compared to an accepted literature value DcH In this lab, an electric coil will be immersed in water in a calorimeter, and a known amount of electrical energy will be input to the coil. Ensure that all manual valves to all the pipes are closed. Manometer: m: h 2: Measured: Head at outlet to test section of the pipe. pipedischargedintoa30ft. Experiment 2: Losses in Pipe Fittings . Lab reports can vary in length and format. Valves,open or partially closed 5. In this case, the energy released b 1. Disregard rotational energy of the sphere. pub Summary Fluid Mechanics Tutorial 1 to 11 Fluid Mechanics - Tutorial work - 1 - 11 Tutorial Questions and Solutions Practical - Fluids Bible Assignment 1 and 2 - questions and solution Major And Minor Losses Due To Pipe Diameter And Fitting - Lab Report The principle examined in this experiment was how the frictional flow of a fluid in a pipe relates to the relationship with the fluids Reynolds number. The system consists of a pipe of several meters plumbed in series. The appurtenance encountered by the fluid flow which is a sudden or gradual change of the boundaries results in a change in magnitude, direction or distribution The appurtenance encountered by the fluid flow which is a sudden or gradual change of the boundaries results in a change in magnitude, direction or distribution 30 Mar 2012 Energy Loss in Pipes - Free download as Word Doc (. Major losses result from the dissipation of energy due to friction as fluid flows through a pipe. Sudden expansion or contraction 3. The test section of pipe is ics. 3 ) 0. When walking through your home, keep a checklist of areas you have inspected and problems you found. nrel. m3/s. From equation (2. Demonstrate that the rise in temperature of the system is proportional to the electrical energy input. In the flow of an incompressible fluid through a horizontal section of uniform pipe with no work input/output, the mechanical energy balance can be written as (Darby, 2001) where P is the flow pressure and r is the fluid density, while the subscripts indicate points 1 and 2, respectively. Δp minor_loss = minor pressure loss (Pa (N/m 2), psf (lb/ft 2)) ρ f = density of fluid (kg/m 3, slugs/ft 3) v = flow velocity (m/s, ft/s) flow is laminar and turbulent. ] Equipment and Materials Per lab group: Low-friction dynamics cart with spring bumper (or spring-loaded plunger cart) Ramp Meterstick An energy conversion device is represented schematically in Figure 4-1. com/videotutorials/index. Type your name, date, the day of the week you did the lab, and the name of the TA. 9 kJ/mol was estimated by substitution of the ideal gas law, DH = DU + R Td Dngas. 1-6. Chemical and mechanical engineers often work with pressure drop, whereas civil engineers usually work with head loss. ) that may be used as evidence when trying to get lab credit at some institutions. 9-1. Presumably, this will not be the case when the initial, arbitrary guesses of Q are used. Background: Fluid friction in pipes and fittings can lead to significant pressure losses. If playback doesn't begin shortly, try restarting your device. Pipe entrance or exit 2. Therefore 2 2 DC L V 1 VFF §·§· ==¨¸¨¸ ©¹ stream lines at cross sections 1 and 2, and the absence of energy losses along the streamline from point 1 to point 2. Case 2: For a city population of 1,000,000, peak demand will be approximately 30,000 kg H. Estimation of frictional losses is important from engineering point of view as the design of pipe the normal resistance loss in the adjoining pipes. Bernoulli's equation can be simplified in this case to: The kinetic energy term on the right is larger than the kinetic energy term on the left, so for the equation to balance the pressure on the right must be smaller than the pressure on the left. Sudden contraction c. ❑ Apparatus: Energy Losses in Energy losses in pipes used for the transportation of fluids (water, petroleum, of these losses and their comparison to the experimental results obtained by the The major factor contributing to the energy loss in any pipe flow is through the boundary shear. For information about Argonne, Lab report structure. RCA Report: The 6 Boiler unit, which provides 600 psig steam, tripped offline due to a loss of fuel gas. 55 The loss factors for each area are shown in Table 2. The experiments will make much more sense to you if you are prepared, and they will take much less time to complete. σ. Uploaded by. 3 Apparatus for measuring friction loss along a pipe The rate of flow along the pipe is controlled by a needle valve at the pipe exit, and may be measured by timing the collection of water in a beaker which is weighed on a laboratory scale or measured in a volumetric cylinder. 1 Additional energy is needed for gains of body tissue, any increase in energy stores, growth of the foetus during pregnancy, production of milk during lactation, and energy losses associated with synthesis/deposition of new tissue or milk. _____ Lab period _____ Results and Calculations (to be handed in, with the discussion, two days after the next lab period) Calculate your percent yield for the bromination of cis-stilbene. This report documents the technical analysis used to evaluate whether residential buildings constructed to meet the r equirements of the 2015 I ECC would result in energy efficiency improvements The Law of Conservation of Energy states that energy cannot be created or destroyed, but can be transformed. H34 - Experiment. The testing techniques and the conclusions reached in evaluating variables affecting erosion, or scour, The potential energy loss (or “force expended” in Joule’s words) per weight drop equals wΔh, where w is the weight and Δh is the height over which the weight is dropped. The incompressible steady flow energy equation, including friction loss, would generalise to 22 12,1 ,2 2212 mm f ppUU zzh ρρgg g g ⎛⎞⎛ ⎞ ⎜⎟⎜ ⎟⎜⎟⎜ ⎟++= + ++ ⎝⎠⎝ ⎠ (4) Where hf is the head loss. 13 Apr 2015 head loss in pipelines. In this part you will do an experiment similar to the one described in Part A, but this time you will determine the efficiency of using an electric hot plate to heat water. • Semi-empirical information: Darcy-Weisbach equation and Moody chart Head Loss in Pipe Flow: January 23, 2007 page 6 straight2-in. 6 to 80 inches. The lab report will consist of several sections. Liquid moving through pipes carries The results of this experiment head losses highest value of pipe section diameter 1 inch towards motion causing or generating energy, especially mechanical. In this example, elemental zinc has an oxidation state of 0; loss of two electrons raises its oxidation state to +2. com Engineering Data SECTION PAGE DATE A Crane Co. Department of Transportation) Office of Pipeline Safety OTD Operations Technology Development Company PAMP Portable Acoustic Monitoring Packages P&M Preventative and Mitigative Measures The lab report "Fluid Mechanics for Engineers" involves the analysis of the energy losses in pipes. Keywords . A comprehensive range of investigations can be conducted suchas losses in a variety of pipes and pipe system components. When the velocity See full list on uta. An understanding of the basic principles of energy – conservation, measurement, conversion and Energy Losses in Pipes. Conservation of Energy and Energy Transfer. a Kinetic energy coefficient or Cariolis coefficient Y Specific weight of the fluid lb/ft3 AE Energy loss ft Ah Change in water-surface elevation ft 0 Slope angle of bed or angle of V-notch weir K von Karman constant Jl Dynamic viscosity Ib s/ft2, slug/s ft \) Kinematic viscosity ft2/s p Density of the fluid slugs/ft3 T Shear stress lb/ft2 TecQuipment offers the optional ‘roughened pipe’. 7-1. It works with TecQuipment’s Digital Hydraulic Bench (H1F) . Trace- The test report indicates the contents of the sample bottle, so careful sample collection and handling is required for a reliable test result that represents the water quality of the well. The Formal Laboratory Report The purpose of the laboratory report is: 1. 0916m Derivation The energy loss which occurs in pipe fittings (so called- secondary loss) is commonly expressed in terms of a head loss (h, meters) in the form: Δh= Kv²/2g Where K= the loss coefficient and v= mean velocity of flow into fitting. Bureau Reclamation (USBR), a hydraulic jump can be classified in undular, weak, oscillating, steady, and strong jump. In this laboratory you will first investigate properties of fluid pressure. (manometer) board on the apparatus for this experiment. pipe fitter 18. 25 inches). II. The relationship between frictional head loss and frictional pressure drop is simply: (4) where: = frictional pressure devise a basic description of the process. Control valves are fitted on each pipe, which enables to use one pipe at a time for experiment. In addition to the energy lost due to frictional forces, the flow also loses energy (or pressure) as it goes through fittings, such as The pressure loss in pipe flows is commonly referred to as head loss. Major energy loss. A 3. lab report 4 major minor losses. APPENDIX You and your lab partner(s) will work together, but you each must submit an individual lab report, with a discussion of the lab and interpretation of results in your own words. Department of Energy Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Aug 26, 2002 · As with any process the analysis of a heat exchanger begins with an energy and material balance. The main focus of this experiment is to study the head losses that are experienced through common fittings and valves which are commonly found in piping systems… FLOW IN PIPES Fluid flow in circular and noncircular pipes is commonly encountered in practice. Pipe Flow. Note: The loss given by this expression is not the total loss caused by the bend but the excess loss above that which would be caused by a straight pipe equal in length to the length of the pipe axis. txt · Last modified: 2015/11/09 20:24 by vyhmeise Page Tools Sep 25, 2013 · For this section of the laboratory experiment, a metal (Cu, 99. Measurements of the heat produced will be used to accomplish the following objectives: 1. energy losses in pipes lab report pdf
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